Space Science Research Projects

Space Science Research Projects

The New Mexico Consortium and Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) Intelligence and Space Research (ISR) division pursue joint research in space science. Research topics include space weather, planetary exploration, and remote sensing of the earth. The NMC and LANL seek to increase student and faculty involvement in research, and hope to facilitate the development of new missions. Read below to learn more about space science research at the NMC:

Genesis Mission Constraints on Solar-Wind Fractionation: CNO Regime Measurements and Data Analyses to Determine Solar Abundances from the Solar Wind

SHINE PROJECT - New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Karen Rieck, NMC Research Scientist
Daniel Reisenfeld, LANL Staff Scientist, NMC Affiliate
Roger Wiens, LANL Staff Scientist


Samples of solar wind were returned to Earth for analysis by the Genesis spacecraft so that solar wind could be used to provide accurate and precise measurements of solar composition. However, elemental and isotopic fractionation that occurs during solar wind formation changes the composition of the solar wind relative to photospheric abundances. The fractionation must be quantified and subtracted from solar wind composition to derive accurate solar data from solar wind data. Fractionation depends on a variety of factors, including the first ionization potential of the element, the mass of the ion, the speed of the solar wind, and the phase of the solar cycle. Our goal is to provide data on how fractionation depends on these factors to help test models describing solar wind formation. To accomplish this goal, we measure abundances of C, N, and O in Genesis regime-specific samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry. We also use composition data from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) instrument onboard the ACE spacecraft, as well as other solar wind instruments (e.g., the Genesis ion and electron monitors, and the Ulysses solar wind spectrometers) to help us develop a method to correct solar wind abundances to solar abundances.

Innovative Advances in Understanding Auroral Phenomena by Harnessing the Power of Citizen Science

NMC Space Science Aurora Los Alamos

Space Weather Research and NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission

Space Weather Research - New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico

SHINE: Physics of the Interplanetary Electric Potential and Modifications to Exosphere Models of the Solar Wind

SHINE PROJECT - New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Xiangrong Fu, NMC Research Scientist
Joe Borovsky, Space Science Institite
S. Peter Gary, Space Science Institute


The overarching objective of this SHINE project is to make improvements to the physics of exosphere models of the solar wind and to see how those improvements affect the properties of the solar wind and the exobase that drives it.

Part of this objective is to determine whether exosphere models can be corrected and made competitive with other models for the solar wind acceleration and evolution. The major advance in this SHINE project will be to replace a static (in the Sun’s reference frame) interplanetary potential with a potential made up of multiple weak double layers in the solar-wind plasma. The changed reaction of ions to moving potential structures (instead of a Sun-stationary potential structure) will result in: (1) changed terminal velocities for the protons and heavy ions as a function of the electron velocity distribution function at the exobase, (2) a related reduction in the total electrostatic potential needed to accelerate the solar wind, (3) heating, rather than cooling, of the solar-wind ions as they are accelerated, (4) differences in the outward acceleration of protons and heavy ions.

Plasma Structure and Composition as a Driver of Wave Growth in the Inner Magnetosphere

Research

Michael Denton, NMC Research Scientist
Lauren Blum, NASA/Goddard


Uncovering the underlying physics behind electro-magnetic (EM) wave generation in the Earth’s magnetosphere is essential for better predicting where and when the waves will be present.

EM waves cause particle acceleration and/or loss and hence are important for prediction and mitigation of the potentially damaging radiation environment that satellites operate within. Recent studies of EMIC waves reveal a dependence of the waves’ spatial extent on magnetic local time (MLT), wave frequency, and L shell around Earth.

Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain some of these patterns, including different sources (and spatial extents) of ion anisotropy on the day versus night side, compositional variations throughout the inner magnetosphere, or cold plasma density structure. Studies of ion dynamics in the inner magnetosphere have shown rapid evolution in spatial structures and boundaries, as well as composition, but the relationship between these variations and characteristic EMIC wave scales has yet to be explored. Multipoint measurements in the inner magnetosphere (e.g from satellite missions such as the NASA Van Allen Probes) can allow the spatial and temporal evolution of various particle populations and wave modes to be disentangled.

Electron Acceleration and Emissions from the Solar Flare Termination Shock

SHINE PROJECT - New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Fan Guo, LANL Staff Scientist, NMC Affiliate


The overarching goal of the project is to understand electron acceleration and emission by reconnection-driven termination shocks in solar flares.

Solar flares are remarkable sites for particle acceleration and high-energy emissions in the solar system (Lin et al. 2003). However, how the non-thermal particles are accelerated is currently under debate. The goal of this project will be to model the dynamical evolution of the termination shock and its electron acceleration through several studies. The outcome will advance our understanding of multi-wavelength emissions and the role of the termination shock in dissipating energy and accelerating particles in solar flares.

Collaborative Research: Turbulence, Structures, and Diffusive Shock Acceleration

Fan Guo, LANL Staff Scientist, NMC Affiliate


Although shock waves are thought to be effective accelerators of particles via the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism, the predicted characteristics of the energetic particle distribution are often inconsistent with observations.

We propose to investigate the amplification and generation of turbulence by fast mode shock waves, and the subsequent acceleration of charged particles, particularly electrons, in the turbulent wake of a shock. For the first time, we will develop quantitative and testable models of particle energization in turbulence generated and amplified by shocks that is dissipated via reconnection current layers and associated magnetic islands.

Magnetic Reconnection at the Dayside Magnetopause and the Role of Magnetospheric Ions

Research

Michael Denton, NMC Research Scientist


Ions from the magnetosphere are present at the dayside reconnection site. These ions drift to the dayside in the convection electric field from their origin in the plasmasphere, plasma cloak, or the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL). Theory and observations indicate that these ions reduce the rate of dayside magnetic reconnection although this interaction remains unexplored in detail. The goal of this NASA funded project is to analyze and quantify this effect.